The Feb. 17 issue of Current Biology1 has a Q&A magazine feature on the genetic code. After dismissing some myths about it being universal, consisting of only 20 amino acids and obligated to only three codons (there are some minor exceptions to these mostly-true principles: see 04/30/2003), the authors tackle the big question: where did it come from?I heard about a ‘frozen accident’�One of the first proposals, in 1968, for the origin of the code, was Francis Crick’s ‘frozen accident’ model. But the discovery of alternative codes showed that the code is not frozen. And similar codons are assigned to similar amino acids, indicating that the code is not an accident.So, how did the code evolve?There are several theories that try to explain the origin of the code. Most can be classified in one of three major groups.Chemical: posits that direct chemical interactions between amino acids and their cognate codons/anticodons influenced codon assignment. Studies of binding of RNA aptamers to amino acids showed that, for at least some amino acids – arginine, tyrosine and isoleucine – such chemical interactions do exist. These theories fail to explain the assignment of codons that do not show direct interactions to their cognate amino acids.Historical: proposes that an initially smaller code grew by incorporation of new amino acids. For example, new amino acids may have captured codons from their metabolic precursors, contributing to the assignment of similar amino acids to similar codons.Selection: suggests that the code was selected to minimize the phenotypic effects of point mutations. The code’s organization supports this: nonsynonymous substitutions often lead to replacement of an amino acid by one chemically similar, causing little disruption in the protein.Accumulating evidence for these models suggests that they are not mutually exclusive. Rather, the code probably evolved by an interplay among some or all of them. Direct interactions of short RNA molecules and amino acids may have fixed the assignment of certain codons, while subsequent assignments may have been driven by history and selection.(Emphasis in original.)1Andre R.O. Cavalcanti and Laura F. Landweber, “Magazine: Genetic Code,” Current Biology Vol 14, R147, 17 February 2004.They just violated Occam’s razor. They also violated the rule that three wrongs don’t make a right. The “Chemical” theory is the old biological predestination idea that Dean Kenyon abandoned. If RNA happens to bind to three amino acids better than the 17 others, that does not explain how they subsequently linked via peptide bonds to form a polypeptide with any catalytic activity. Amino acids do not have the ability to link up by themselves. Getting just one element of the complex protein machinery that can translate DNA and construct a protein is astronomically improbable, to put it mildly (see our online book).The “Historical” theory is hysterical, because it personifies amino acids. One cannot ascribe purposeful processes to chemicals. No cheating with natural selection, either; it cannot even begin to a player unless an accurate system of self-replication is already working.The “Selection” Theory also personifies the chemicals: the code was selected to minimize … point mutations” Enough of this passive-voice nonsense. Who selected it, and why would he/she/it want to, if not to optimize the system? The sentence makes perfect sense in intelligent design theory, but is bizarre otherwise. No cheating with natural selection here, either. The authors committed one more foul: card stacking. All their theories assume naturalistic evolution. They left out the only theory that explains the observations without violating Occam’s razor: intelligent design. (Visited 41 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest The next round of funding is now available through the Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP), as part of a tri-state, five year, $17.5 million program funded by the USDA’s Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). The goal of the program is to reduce nutrients entering Ohio waterways to lessen harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie. Funding is available to farmers installing conservation practices that benefit water quality in the Western Lake Erie Basin.This year, Ohio livestock producers will receive priority funding. Nutrient management practices that allow for proper storage, timing, and placement of nutrients, will help livestock producers comply with Ohio’s nutrient management laws. Ohio livestock producers located in the Western Lake Erie Basin interested in applying for technical and financial assistance to implement these practices should contact their local USDA Service Center. The application deadline is October 19, 2018.The Tri‐State Western Lake Erie Basin Phosphorus Reduction Initiative is a partnership effort that includes public, private and non‐profit organizations and is led in Ohio by the Ohio Department of Agriculture. These partner organizations assist with promoting conservation opportunities and monitoring the impact of these practices implemented through the initiative.For more information about conservation assistance available through the Tri‐State Western Lake Erie Basin Phosphorus Reduction Initiative, visit the Ohio USDA-NRCS website at www.oh.nrcs.usda.gov.
Looking to contend in different competitions this season, Ceres Negros acquired Filipino international Alvaro Silva to shore up its defense in preparation for its AFC Champions League and the Philippines Premier League campaigns.One of the standouts of the Azkals’ run in the AFF Suzuki Cup and the AFC Asian Cup, the 34-year-old Silva brings a wealth of experience to an already formidable Ceres side, which has won the last two domestic titles.ADVERTISEMENT View comments Grace Poe files bill to protect govt teachers from malicious accusations ‘We are too hospitable,’ says Sotto amid SEA Games woes SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte ‘We are too hospitable,’ says Sotto amid SEA Games woes LATEST STORIES MOST READ Silva’s acquisition along with former Kaya Iloilo star Miguel Tanton and Davao Aguilas players Dennis Villanueva and Dylan de Bruycker eases the impact of the loss of Patrick Reichelt and Manny Ott.Reichelt signed for Melaka United in the Malaysian Super League. Ott moved to Thai Premier League side Ratchaburi Mitr Pohl.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Silva has played for Malaga in the Spanish La Liga, but also had stints in Kuwait, Romania, Azerbaijan, South Korea, Vietnam and Malaysia.Strong in the air and a solid physical presence on the ball, the Azkals centerback was instrumental in keeping South Korea at bay in the Philippines’ 1-0 defeat in its AFC Asian Cup debut last month in Dubai.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSUrgent reply from Philippine football chiefSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption charges“I coached him in Spain a long time ago and I know what he’s capable of,” said Ceres coach Risto Vidakovic, whose team begins its AFC Champions League preliminary round campaign against Myanmar champion Yangon United on Tuesday night in Bacolod City.“We are getting a really good player who can easily make an impact with leadership and presence.” Coach downplays win after Mighty roars to rout of varsity squad Oil plant explodes in Pampanga town Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting PDEA chief backs Robredo in revealing ‘discoveries’ on drug war Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:50Palace defends Duterte’s absences from Asean events02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss US judge bars Trump’s health insurance rule for immigrants
Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess “It takes a lot of work. It doesn’t happen overnight. We’ve been through a lot of downs and we’ve been through a lot of ups; it’s been a journey,” Ross said.Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.net“All the guys that wore that jersey tonight are all fighters. We all came through even though we had a terrible first half. We didn’t lose hope, we didn’t lose faith; we just kept battling. We made enough plays in the end to pull this one through.”San Miguel Beer had to go through Magnolia to keep the Philippine Cup championship for the second straight year and it’s not going to be the last.READ: Magnolia defense holds San Miguel to lowest scoring quarter in PBA finals history“They’re scrappy, man. I kept telling my team that all five guys on the court have to play hard. You can’t take any plays off against this team because all five of their guys on the court, they’re gonna go all-out. They go all-out every possession. It’s a testament to the coaching and to their leaders, how they play the game,” Ross commended. “They’re a tough bunch.”ADVERTISEMENT PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting Catholic schools seek legislated pay hike, too DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew LATEST STORIES Duterte wants probe of SEA Games mess Ethel Booba twits Mocha over 2 toilets in one cubicle at SEA Games venue MOST READ “They pushed us to the limit. They’re definitely a team we have to look out for going forward because they’re tough. I tip my hat to those guys.”Real recognizes real.Ross had a lot of high praise for the Hotshots and he made sure to let them know about it.“After our celebration, I went to their locker room and shook everyone’s hands, and told them that they played a great series because it was one we definitely had to work for. And it wasn’t a pushover. I’m sure they’re looking forward to playing us next conference, and we’ll be ready for whatever they throw at us.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Two-day strike in Bicol fails to cripple transport ‘Rebel attack’ no cause for concern-PNP, AFP Photo by Tristan Tamayo/INQUIRER.netMANILA, Philippines—San Miguel Beer had been through countless battles on its way to building a dynasty.The “Beeracle” will always be up there, but winning a fifth consecutive Philippine Cup crown in a gut-wrenching Game 7 comes close as far as the Beermen’s accomplishments go.ADVERTISEMENT View comments Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. La Salle blanks FEU for UAAP women’s football 3-peat “It was one of the toughest. I have a bad memory so it’s hard for me to remember, but this was the first one that I actually cried after winning the game. I hugged coach Leo and tears fell through my eyes, and it was definitely one of the feel-good championships that we have,” Ross told reporters Wednesday night after surviving Magnolia, 72-71, in Game 7 of the 2019 PBA Philippine Cup Finals at Araneta Coliseum.READ: San Miguel makes history with 5th straight Philippine Cup title, outlasts MagnoliaFEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logistics“It’s always hard to win a championship, but this one is one of the hardest,” said San Miguel Beer superstar June Mar Fajardo, who bagged his third Finals MVP plum.The Beermen became the first team in PBA history to claim five All-Filipino titles in a row but there is no victory without struggle and they dealt with a lot of it along the way.
Saturday 15 JuneEels v RoostersBankwest Stadium Friday 14 JuneCowboys v Titans1300Smiles Stadium Saturday 13 JulyBroncos v WarriorsSuncorp Stadium Sunday 2 JuneTitans v WarriorsCbus Super Stadium Friday 31 MayEels v TigersBankwest Stadium Saturday 20 JulyCowboys v Roosters1300Smiles Stadium NRL Touch Premiership Match Day AssistantTouch Football Australia (TFA), in conjunction with the NRL, introduced the NRL Touch Premiership in 2018, with games played as curtain-raisers to NRL games. 2019 is the second and an expanded year of the Elite Competition with introduction of two new teams, the Sydney Roosters and the New Zealand Warriors.TFA is seeking suitably qualified volunteers to fill the role of Match Day Assistant throughout the 2019 NRL Touch Premiership.ResponsibilitiesDuties include but are not limited to the following:Assist with the venue setup prior to each matchMaintain excellent standard of field presentation during each matchPack down Touch Football field in an efficient manner prior to NRL warm upAssist with any additional tasks requested by Grounds Manager or Game Day ManagerFollow the provided Runsheet to ensure setup and pack down is done to scheduleRequirementsCurrent financial member of a TFA AffiliateKnowledge of Touch FootballExcellent time management skillsAbility to follow instructions and take directionBe a team player willing to assist the Grounds Manager and Game Day Manager with additional tasks as requiredBe at venue 2 hours prior to NRLTP match and up to 60 minutes post-matchAbility to complete physically demanding tasksMinimum age of 18Attire: Club polo and jumper and pants/jeans (with no holes or rips)Reports To: Grounds ManagerThe Grounds Manager is responsible for the set-up and pack-down operations, field presentation, management of Match Day Assistants and more.The Game Day Manager may also call upon you for assistance if required. The Game Day Manager is responsible for accreditation, management of teams, referees, broadcasting, match delivery and more.AvailabilityTouch Football Australia hope that are you able to assist with as many matches as possible. We encourage you to still apply should you only be available for 1-2 matches.Through the application process you will be able to select which match days you are able to volunteer at.Please see below for NRL Touch Premiership matches TFA are sourcing volunteers for: Thursday 1 AugustTigers v KnightsLeichhardt Oval Application ProcessPlease ensure you have read the position description above. To apply for the role of Match Day Assistant, please click on the following link: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/NRLTP_Match_Day_Assistant_ApplicationApplication Closing DatesSunday 5th May 2019.As thanks for your assistance, you will receive a free ticket to the NRL match following your shift.For further information on the role, please contact TFA National Event Coordinator, Colette Ritchie.E: firstname.lastname@example.orgPH: 02 6212 2824 Saturday 8 JuneCowboys v Knights1300Smiles Stadium Sunday 9 JuneBroncos v TigersSuncorp Stadium Friday 2 AugustBroncos v CowboysSuncorp Stadium Friday 5 JulyTigers v CowboysBankwest Stadium Sunday 19 MayKnights v EelsGlen Willow Stadium Saturday 6 JulyKnights v BroncosMJS Stadium Thursday 27 JuneTigers v TitansBankwest Stadium Sunday 21 JulyTitans v EelsCbus Super Stadium DATEMATCHVENUE Sunday 21 AprilTitans v BroncosCbus Super Stadium Sunday 14 JulyRoosters v KnightsCentral Coast Stadium Friday 26 JulyKnights v WarriorsMJS Stadium
15Sep Lucido: Juror compensation law effective this week Categories: Lucido News,News Legislation submitted by state Rep. Peter Lucido and signed into law in June becomes effective across Michigan this week, giving jurors an improvement in pay and transportation reimbursement for serving in civil and criminal court proceedings.The pay and mileage increases start on April 1, 2018.“It’s about time!” said Lucido, of Shelby Township. “When you consider there had been no monetary increase since 2003 to citizens performing their civic duty, this was overdue. That changes this week in a fiscally responsible way that brings no added costs to taxpayers.”Juror compensation increases will only occur when the state’s Juror Compensation Reimbursement Fund (JCRF), which reimburses local and county courts for jury-related costs, has more than $2 million over the two previous fiscal years. The new law calls for the Reimbursement Fund to initiate a software contract to improve the state’s jury management – also at no added cost public cost.The individual juror pay increases are $5. Before today, jurors were paid $25 on the first full day of trial ($12.50 for a half day), increasing to $40 for each following full day and $20 for a half day. The mileage reimbursement improves from 10 cents to 20 cents per mile.“What we were paying even potential jurors is not sufficient to cover the bare essentials for serving, not to mention wages lost from missing work,” said Lucido. “Our citizens’ involvement during the court process is invaluable. The least we could do is make it more reasonable to help offset their costs for being good, responsible citizens.”The full House and Senate chambers agreed by unanimously passing House Bills 4209 and 4210 — now Public Acts 51 and 52, respectively, of 2017.“It’s good for Democrats and Republicans, but most importantly to the citizens who follow through on our court system’s call to serve,” said Lucido, a licensed attorney in Macomb County for 30 years.###
Advertisement File-hosting service Dropbox and Google yesterday announced the creation of Simply Secure, an organization that aims to make security tech easier to use.The companies said the challenge presented by security online had become particularly clear in the wake of events including the recent celebrity photo leak and the revelations of Edward Snowden, the former National Security Agency contractor and whistleblower.While consumer-facing security tools exist and are technically effective, they often have low adoption rates because they’re inconvenient or too confusing for the average person to operate. – Advertisement – Even well-known features like two-factor authentication, offered by many online services, are not widely used, the companies said in a statement.“No matter how effective security technologies are, people will not use them unless they become more accessible and easier to understand. We need simpler options for stronger security, available at our fingertips,” they said.The organization, will be led by former Google project manager Sara Sinclair Brody. It will be working with the Open Technology Fund, University College London, and World Wide Web Consortium to find more consumer-friendly ways to improve security.The move comes at a sensitive moment for Google which is at the center of an anti-trust investigation by the European Commission. The launch also comes after the European Union passed new rules giving people the “right to be forgotten” online – compelling tech companies to remove search results in Europe for queries that include their names if the results are “inadequate, irrelevant or no longer relevant, or excessive.”Data protection authorities from across the EU member states met in Brussels on 17-18 September to discuss their response to the May ruling.The Guardian