August 2019

Chain Mail Fabric a Perfect Fit

first_imgThe micromachined chain mail fabric is made of links and rings, which can slide against each other to create a flexible fabric. Credit: Engel, et al. “It’s somewhat of a crazy idea, I guess,” Liu told PhysOrg.com. “We were interested in using microtechnology to build something that could flex and bend. The chain mail construction is nothing fancy, but it’s an interesting structure that hasn’t been used much recently.” Chain mail fabric draped over a one-inch metal ball. Credit: Engle, et al. Citation: Chain Mail Fabric a Perfect Fit (2007, February 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-02-chain-mail-fabric.html Contemporaries of the ancient Greeks might find something familiar within the walls of the Micro and Nanotechnology Lab at the University of Illinois. In constructing a new type of smart fabric, researchers Jonathan Engel and Chang Liu have used interconnecting rings and links to create a textile looking a bit like the chain mail used by warriors dating back 2,000-plus years.center_img As a flexible MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) device, the new fabric represents a milestone in the development of smart textiles. A type of smart device, smart textiles will likely be incorporated into wearable computers—shirts that can detect vital signs, locate bullet wounds, or provide an information network for soldiers on a dispersed battleground, according to recent research (Georgia Tech). Generally, most work on smart fabrics involves integrating the electronic elements into conventional fabrics. Engel and Liu’s integrated circuit, however, is the fabric—a continuous, flexible and stretchable metallic cloth with unique electrical and mechanical properties.One of the interesting physical characteristics of the micro chain mail is its ability to bend along two axes, allowing the fabric to drape over curved surfaces, wrinkle-free. This ability comes from the geometric network of rings connected by links—each piece of about half a millimeter in length—which can slide and rotate against each other. As the links are pulled taut, the researchers found that the fabric’s length could expand by 32%, with its width decreasing by 56%.“The flexible fabric can conform to curved surfaces, and be used on objects that move,” explained Liu. “Because of the nature of the fabric, electronics can be easily integrated into the technology. In the future, for example, this type of clothing could shield electromagnetic waves for construction workers.”Regarding the electronic properties, Engel and Liu found that the displacement of the copper fabric caused variations in its electrical conduction properties, which would enable using the fabric as an electrical device. When the links were fully stretched, making solid electrical contact, the researchers observed a decrease in electrical resistance of nearly seven orders of magnitude. The scientists also investigated the fabric’s mechanical tensile strength, finding a value of less than half that of the ultimate strength of copper. By inspecting how the fabric broke—failure occurred mostly in the rings rather than the links—the researchers predict that a complex loading occurs in the fabric, different from that in normal copper.To fabricate this first batch, Engel and Liu used a multilayer microelectroplating process, depositing thin layers of aluminum, copper and photoresist on a substrate to form a mold, which was then filled with copper. In the end, the sacrificial mold layers were “washed out” by soaking in chemicals, leaving the links or rings behind. While this fabrication occurred on a small scale, the researchers suggest that large-scale manufacturing of the fabric is quite realistic for the future. Further, besides using metal materials, other materials may offer advantages for different applications. For example, a silicon chain mail fabric could generate electricity using solar cells, or detect motion or strain. Polymer elastomers could have an advantage in sensing chemicals, strain or pressure.“This is just one of the first steps in wearable electronics technology,” said Liu. “The long-term interest is to make computer gear blend in to everyday clothing so that it doesn’t feel intrusive. This is a barrier for people for wearing, for example, solar cells or sensors on their clothing, but it can be overcome by a robust fabric that moves with you.”Citation: Engel, Jonathan, and Liu, Chang. “Creation of a metallic micromachined chain mail fabric.” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17 (2007) 551-556.By Lisa Zyga, Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Researchers demonstrate a single laser source scheme for studying topological matter in

first_img This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Studies on exotic superfluids in spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases reviewed Research regarding topological matter in cold-atom systems has contributed insights into such systems due to the degree of controllability it offers in simulating condensed matter models—interesting topological phenomena have been observed recently in condensed-matter systems. But at the same time, many have found it rough going due to the tricky nature of dealing with the spin-orbit coupling that is involved. In this new effort, the researchers have come up with an approach that is easier to carry out, and as a bonus, it can be tuned between dimensions of the spin orbit.Conventional methods have relied on having the role of spin carried out by certain states of an atom, while the coupling has been caused to come about using the light from a laser—most have resorted to actually using two laser beams to achieve hyperfine levels through a Raman transition. To make the process easier, the researchers used a single laser beam, which they split into two parts, allowing for the creation of an optical lattice that was spin-independent, and a Raman beam that was frequency shifted—allowing for a double Raman transition in two dimensions to cause spinflips. This setup makes the work less difficult and offers another advantage—the dimensionality is tunable between one and two dimensions. Experimental realization of 2D SO interaction and 1D-2D crossover. Credit: Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6689 The researchers note that while they used bosonic atoms, they believe the scheme would work equally well with fermions, and suggest that because their two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling system is more topological stable, it could offer new research opportunities for those studying unusual quantum phases such as topological superfluids. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with members from several institutions in China has developed a new means for studying topological matter in cold-atom systems that involves using a single laser source. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes how the scheme works and outlines possible uses for it. Monika Aidelsburger with UPMC Sorbonne University offers an overview of the work done by the team in a Perspective piece in the same journal issue and offers some insight into some of the possible directions such research is going. © 2016 Phys.org More information: Z. Wu et al. Realization of two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling for Bose-Einstein condensates, Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf6689AbstractCold atoms with laser-induced spin-orbit (SO) interactions provide a platform to explore quantum physics beyond natural conditions of solids. Here we propose and experimentally realize two-dimensional (2D) SO coupling and topological bands for a rubidium-87 degenerate gas through an optical Raman lattice, without phase-locking or fine-tuning of optical potentials. A controllable crossover between 2D and 1D SO couplings is studied, and the SO effects and nontrivial band topology are observed by measuring the atomic cloud distribution and spin texture in momentum space. Our realization of 2D SO coupling with advantages of small heating and topological stability opens a broad avenue in cold atoms to study exotic quantum phases, including topological superfluids. Explore further Journal information: Science The spin-orbit-coupling-induced distribution of atomic group with different spin state. Credit: PAN’s team A diagram of a 2-D spin-orbit coupling and topological band. Atoms perform the spin flip quantum tunneling in the optical lattice under the laser field. Credit: PAN’s team Citation: Researchers demonstrate a single laser source scheme for studying topological matter in cold-atom systems (2016, October 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-10-laser-source-scheme-topological-cold-atom.htmllast_img read more

New survey suggests far fewer Jupiter sized rogue planets than thought

first_img Explore further Back in 2011, an international team of researchers conducted a study of rogue planets and reported evidence suggesting that there are approximately twice as many rogue Jupiters as main sequence stars. In this new effort, the researchers took a new census gain a more accurate estimate.Identifying rogue planets is difficult, of course, because they do not emit any light of their own—against the black of space, there is nothing to see. But when they move past light emitted from a distant star, a lensing phenomenon can occur. This happens when light from the blocked star is magnified by the planet’s gravity, causing a lensing halo effect that can be seen by instruments here on Earth. The size of the planet can also be calculated by noting the lensing duration. The researchers with this new census winnowed down the millions of stars in the dataset to just 2,617 high-quality microlensing events. This represented a much larger sample size than the one used by the team in 2011—they analyzed just 474 events.The researchers conclude that Jupiter-sized rogue planets are far rarer than the earlier census claimed. But they note it is possible that are more Earth-sized rogue planets roaming around than currently believed. The data also showed that of the big rogue planets roaming the Milky Way, approximately 25 percent of them are likely gas giants, with the remaining 75 percent represented by rocky or ice giants. Citation: New survey suggests far fewer Jupiter sized rogue planets than thought (2017, July 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-07-survey-jupiter-sized-rogue-planets.html An artist’s impression of a gravitational microlensing event by a free-floating planet. Credit: J. Skowron / Warsaw University Observatory © 2017 Phys.org Simulations suggest Planet Nine may have been a rogue More information: Przemek Mróz et al. No large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets, Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature23276Planet formation theories predict that some planets may be ejected from their parent systems as result of dynamical interactions and other processes. Unbound planets can also be formed through gravitational collapse, in a way similar to that in which stars form. A handful of free-floating planetary-mass objects have been discovered by infrared surveys of young stellar clusters and star-forming regions as well as wide-field surveys, but these studies are incomplete for objects below five Jupiter masses. Gravitational microlensing is the only method capable of exploring the entire population of free-floating planets down to Mars-mass objects, because the microlensing signal does not depend on the brightness of the lensing object. A characteristic timescale of microlensing events depends on the mass of the lens: the less massive the lens, the shorter the microlensing event. A previous analysis of 474 microlensing events found an excess of ten very short events (1–2 days)—more than known stellar populations would suggest—indicating the existence of a large population of unbound or wide-orbit Jupiter-mass planets (reported to be almost twice as common as main-sequence stars). These results, however, do not match predictions of planet-formation theories and surveys of young clusters. Here we analyse a sample of microlensing events six times larger than that of ref. 11 discovered during the years 2010–15. Although our survey has very high sensitivity (detection efficiency) to short-timescale (1–2 days) microlensing events, we found no excess of events with timescales in this range, with a 95 per cent upper limit on the frequency of Jupiter-mass free-floating or wide-orbit planets of 0.25 planets per main-sequence star. We detected a few possible ultrashort-timescale events (with timescales of less than half a day), which may indicate the existence of Earth-mass and super-Earth-mass free-floating planets, as predicted by planet-formation theories. Journal information: Nature (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with Warsaw University Observatory, Ohio State University and the University of Warwick has found evidence that suggests there are far fewer Jupiter-sized rogue planets roaming the Milky Way galaxy than prior surveys have shown. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes using data compiled from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment to analyze light curves of approximately 50 million stars for the period 2010 to 2015 and what they found by doing so. The gravity of a free-floating planet may deflect and focus light from a distant source star when passing closely in front of it. Owing to the distorted image the star temporarily seems much brighter. Credit: J. Skowron / Warsaw University Observatory The researchers conclude by suggesting their findings jibe with logic—there are likely to be fewer rogue giant planets because they would have a stronger gravitational connection to their original star system. Smaller, Earth-like planets, on the other hand, could be flung off with relative ease. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Protest marks funeral of war criminal Azam in Bangladesh

first_imgFive handmade bombs exploded near the Baitul Mokarram National Mosque ahead of the arrival of Azam’s body at the mosque for funeral prayer on Saturday, but no casualty was reported, police said.‘The janaza of a war criminal can never be held at the national mosque,’ Ziaul Hasan, chairman of Bangladesh Sommilito Islami Jote, an alliance of progressive Islamic parties, said at a human chain near the mosque.92-year-old Azam, who was sentenced to 90 years in jail for masterminding atrocities during the 1971 independence war against Pakistan, died on Thursday at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University hospital in the capital Dhaka after suffering a stroke. He was also suffering from old age ailments including heart and kidney disorders. Also Read – Pro-Govt supporters rally as Hong Kong’s divisions deepenHe was buried at the family graveyard in the capital. He was kept at the hospital’s prison cell since his arrest three years ago for 1971 war crimes. He was also suffering from old-age ailments including heart and kidney disorders. Last year Azam, the ideological linchpin of Jamaat, was sentenced to 90 years in jail after being found guilty of charges relating to 1971 war of independence with Pakistan. Azam, who has left deep emotional scars in the collective national psyche by engineering war-time atrocities in 1971, was found guilty of all five categories of crime — conspiracy, planning, incitement, complicity and murder. Also Read – Pak Army ‘fully prepared’ to face any challenge: Army spokesmanHis conviction sparked deadly protests by Jamaat and widespread celebration amongst secular groups. Azam, however, declined to have committed any crime in 1971 and refused to regret. Meanwhile, Jamaat-e-Islami in Pakistan also held funeral prayers in different parts of the country, mourning the death of Azam, local media reported.Earlier, Azam’s last wish before his death had sparked controversy as he wanted his funeral prayers to be led by one of the two fundamentalist Jamaat-e-Islami leaders also convicted for atrocities during the 1971 independence war against Pakistan.‘He wished to be buried at family graveyard at Moghbazar in Dhaka and have his funeral prayers led by (Jamaat-e-Islami leaders and war crime convicts) Delwar Hossain Sayedee or Matiur Rahman Nizami,’ Azam’s counsel said on Saturday. Azam’s elder son and sacked army brigadier  endorsed the comment saying his father expressed his last wish that his funeral prayers should be administered by either or the two fellow convicts.last_img read more

Modi reaches out to Oppn hopeful of fruitful winter session

first_img“People of the country have given us responsibility to run the government, but they have also given the responsibility to all those sitting in Parliament to run the country,” Modi told reporters outside Parliament House on the first day of the Winter session.Praising the “positive role” played by the opposition in running the budget session, Modi sought the “same” cooperation from the lawmakers.”I have confidence that a lot of good work for the betterment of the people will be done with a cool mind and in a cool atmosphere,” the Prime Minister said. Also Read – Need to understand why law graduate’s natural choice is not legal profession: CJIModi said he believes that those who have responsibility of running the government and those having the responsibility of running the country will together work for the country’s progress.”I hope this session will be fruitful and result oriented,” he said.”In the last session, the positive role of the opposition has resulted in good work, I am hopeful that this time too we will experience the same,” Modi said.His statement assumes significance as several Opposition parties have decided to oppose the insurance bill and corner the government on black money issue, raising the spectre of a stormy session.Modi, while addressing an all-party meeting on the eve of the session yesterday, assured them that collectively all important issues can be taken up and hoped that the month-long session will go “very well” like the last budget session.last_img read more

Following Nipah outbreak in Kerala state issues alert

first_imgKolkata: Following the appearance of Nipah virus (NiV) in Kerala that has claimed 10 lives until now, state Health department is busy drafting advisories and has issued instructions to the state-run hospitals and medical colleges across the state.A senior official at the state Health department said all the hospitals have been alerted. They have been asked to report immediately if any patient is admitted with flu like symptoms.Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) has also asked its health centres to be alert. In case, a patient is having suspected symptoms, he or she must be referred Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsto a hospital.Fruit bats are among the carriers of the virus that is named after Kampung Sungai Nipah, a Malaysian village that first witnessed an outbreak in 1998.According to a senior physician in the city, people must refrain from visiting the southern state, particularly Kozhikode, suspected to be the epicentre of the fresh outbreak.The incidents were previously reported in Siliguri. In case of an attack, the mortality rate is much higher than other diseases. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe tests are done only at the National Institute of Virology in Pune.An orniathologist advised against the consumption of half-eaten fruits because health officials have suggested that the first patient in Kerala may have eaten mangoes that had residues of fruit bat saliva. The doctors have advised that people must be cautions while having cut fruits. Infected humans can develop encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain. The symptoms, typically starting about 5 to 14 days after the NiV infection, include high fever, headache, drowsiness and disorientation that can advance to coma and death. Some patients also have respiratory distress, doctors said.According to the doctors, treatment options are limited in this regard. The focus of NiV management should be on prevention. Strategies include intervention to prevent farm animals from acquiring NiV.Exerts said the healthcare workers should follow standard precautions, including washing hands and wearing gowns, caps, masks and gloves. If anybody complains of headache, fever or similar symptoms, he or she must be taken to a hospital immediately.last_img read more

Govt decides to extend summer vacation in schools

first_imgKolkata: With the mercury touching 41 degree Celsius in the city, the state government has decided to extend summer vacation till 30 June and private schools have been urged to do the same.The city on Monday recorded the highest temperature of the season so far. There will be no respite from the heat wave for the people in the city and South Bengal districts in the next 48 hours, as predicted by the Regional Meteorological Centre at Alipore. A heat wave will sweep through the districts in South Bengal. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsAccording to the weather office, there may be some scattered rainfall in some parts but it will not bring any respite. The sultry and discomfort weather will prevail in South Bengal districts while there is prediction of rainfall in North Bengal districts. Heat wave also swept through the city and the districts throughout the day with people witnessing highest level of discomfort.Purulia recorded 40.7 degree Celsius, Burdwan 41. 8 and Bankura and Digha 42.4 and 38.9 degree Celsius respectively. There is no possibility of experiencing a pleasant weather in the next two days as the monsoon current has stalled due to the westerly wind. According to a weather expert, the scorching westerly winds from Northern states are bringing in the heat wave condition to the state. The impact of the westerly winds is high as the monsoon currents remained stalled. Kolkata has not recorded such hot days during this part of the year even after the onset of monsoon.This is considered to be a significant change in the usual weather pattern of the region, an official of the Met office said.The relative humidity will remain over 80 per cent, a weather official said.last_img read more

Strong quake kills 6 damages 3k houses in Chinas Xinjiang

first_imgA powerful earthquake of 6.5 magnitude on Friday flattened about 3,000 houses and buildings in China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, killing at least six persons and injuring 48 others.The quake struck Pishan County of Hotan Prefecture at 9:07 AM (local time), with the epicenter recorded at a depth of 10 km, China Earthquake Networks Center (CENC) said.Six people have been killed and 40 others injured and about 3,000 houses and other buildings collapsed or were damaged, the Bureau of Civil Affairs in Xinjiang said. Also Read – Pro-Govt supporters rally as Hong Kong’s divisions deepenFollowing the quake, the local administration issued a grade-IV response, the lowest in China’s emergency response system, means a 24-hour alert.The Ministry of Civil Affairs and the National Commission for Disaster Reduction has rushed teams to assist relief work in the quake-hit areas. Around 1,000 tents have been sent to the county.Over 500 soldiers and militia members from Lanzhou military area command have been dispatched to the quake-hit area. A 22-member medical team was also sent to Pishan. Also Read – Pak Army ‘fully prepared’ to face any challenge: Army spokesmanShortly after the quake, several minor tremors measuring between 3.0 and 4.6 magnitude rocked the area, the CENC said.Li Hua, a worker at a state-owned farm in Pishan, told state-run Xinhua news agency that he was left dizzied by a jolt that shook the floor of his fourth-floor home and lasted about a minute.An airport in Hotan has been closed, the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) said in a ? statement. Located in southernmost Xinjiang, Pishan is about 1,800 km from the regional capital of Urumqi and covers 39,700 square km. The epicenter is 7.5 km from the county seat.With a population of 258,000, the county is mainly inhabited by people of Muslim Uygur ethnicity.Director of the CENC Pan Huaiwe?said the quake is unlikely to have triggered a heavy death-toll as the population density in a 50-sq km scope of the epicenter is four persons per sq km, a relatively low density.But at the time he said as time goes by, death toll and injuries might rise.Jiang Haikun, director of the CENC’s forecasting department, said the quake is unlikely to trigger an aftershock with a magnitude higher than 6.5, but aftershocks around magnitude 5 are likely.Jiang said the quake was a result of the pile-up and release of stress in this region and it was not triggered by the Nepal earthquake in April.last_img read more

Dwarkanath Tagores bust unveiled in London

first_imgLondon/Kolkata: Prince Dwarkanath Tagore, best known for his significant role in the Bengal Renaissance of the 19th century, has been honoured with a new bust in London. The grandfather of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore was among the first Indian industrialists, also known as merchant princes, investing in a range of businesses from steam engines to banking in the 1820s. He died during a visit to the UK in August 1846 and was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery in north-west London, where his bust was unveiled on Saturday. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life”He was a Tagore who uplifted the face of trade and business long before his grandson Rabindranath Tagore received the Nobel Prize in Literature. He believed the sky’s the limit and his range of accomplishments spanned from coal, tea, jute, shipping, banking and the list can go on,” said Anirban Mukhopadhyay, President of London Sharad Utsav (LSU), among the groups behind the new statue. After decades amid thousands of other graves, LSU joined hands with the Bengal Heritage Foundation and with the support of the British Council, iLead (Kolkata), Friends of Kensal Green (London) launched the bust and a plaque marking Dwarkanath’s contributions. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedScores of people from the British Bengali community gathered for the event. Kolkata-based businessman Pradeep Chopra travelled all the way from India with his family for the occasion. Dwarkanath died aged 52 at St. George’s Hotel in London during a major thunderstorm in the city. Britain’s then Queen, Victoria, and husband Prince Albert, who had welcomed him to their court like “an old friend” earlier, sent four carriages to the funeral for a so-called “princely” send-off.last_img read more

Best displays get recognition at IHGF fair spring

first_imgThe prestigious Ajay Shankar Memorial Awards for the best designed and displayed stands were distributed on the concluding day of 43rd edition of IHGF-Delhi fair spring 2017 in 12 product categories such as Furniture and Home accessories, home textile, furnishing and floor coverings, carpet and rugs, lamps and lighting products, houseware, decorative and gifts, educational toys and games, decorative, gifts [including corporate gifts], candles, incense sticks, aromatics, stationery and paper including handmade paper products, leather bags and cases, christmas decorations, candles and incense sticks and fashion jewellery and accessories. One award in each category was given. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe Ajay Shankar Memorial Awards were instituted in the memory of late Mr Ajay Shankar, former Development Commissioner (Handicrafts) who was one of the major motivators for establishing this fair. The Award for the Best design and display stand in the category of Furniture and Home accessories was given to M/s Haswani Handicrafts, Jodhpur and M/s Cross Country, Jodhpur and was received by Mr Prakash Haswani and Mr Dinesh Jhanwar respectively. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveIn the category of Home textiles, Furnishing and Floor coverings, the award was given to M/s Art Age Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur and was received by Mr Yogesh Sharma. Ajay Shankar Memorial Award for the Best design and Display Stand in the category of carpet and rugs was given to Essgee Leather Goods Pvt. Ltd, Agra and was received by Mr Vikas K Gupta. M/s India International Exporters, Moradabad received an award in the category of houseware, decorative and gifts.Ajay Shankar Memorial Award for the Best design and Display Stand in the category of Fashion jewellery and accessories was given to M/s Amrish Creations, Delhi and was received by Ms Komal. The award in the category of Christmas decoration, candles and incense sticks was given to M/S A.T.S.S. Enterprises, Delhi and was received by Mr Mohd. Azeem. M/s Afterskool Toys & Games Pvt. Ltd, Kolkata won an award in the category of educational toys and games and was jointly received by Ms Nidhi Agarwal and Ms Neha Agarwal. For the Best design and Display Stand in the category of lamps and lighting products, Ajay Shankar Memorial award was given to M/s Decolite, Moradabad and was received by Mr Shoaib Chowhury. In the category of candles, incense sticks, potpourri and aromatics, Mr Tantry received an award on behalf of M/s Acharya Exports, Mumbai. The Award for the Best design and Display Stand in the category of stationery and paper was given to M/s Alka Pandey Packaging Pvt. Ltd, Jaipur and was received by Mr Alka Panday. In the category of decorative, gifts [including corporate gifts] Mr Sanjay Gupta, on behalf of M/s Parkland India, Moradabad received the award.Ajay Shankar Memorial Award for the Best design and Display Stand in the category of Leather bags and cases was given to M/S Ecoline, Noida and was received by Mr Surinder Singh Sahni.last_img read more